Caracterização de unidades de produção de leite em sistema orgânico ou em transição : produção e qualidade do leite

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Caracterização de unidades de produção de leite em sistema orgânico ou em transição : produção e qualidade do leite

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Title: Caracterização de unidades de produção de leite em sistema orgânico ou em transição : produção e qualidade do leite
Author: Pacheco, Débora Ibagy
Abstract: It was aimed to evaluate 30 milk production unities (MPU) characteristics at transition phase, conversion phase or organic certified on western of Santa Catarina and western and northwest of Paraná. The data was obtained from semi-structured questionnaire and from milk quality analysis (chemical composition, somatic cell counting (SCC) and total bacterial counting (TBC) of milk). The milk analyses were originated by milk sampling from cooling system of each MPU at two seasons, summer and winter of 2012. The milk samples were sent and analyzed in laboratory of Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandês - APCBRH, Curitiba - Parana. In the first study it was objectified to evaluate MPU profile and milk quality, using data of milk analyses as a tool for characterization from the perspective of Normative Instruction No. 62/2012 of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. The data were undergone to correlation analysis and descriptive statistics. It was observed that MPU were conducted by family members as work based, farmers showed average age of 41 and 60 years with elementary school. The majority of MPU has agriculture as main activity, and this herd is mostly composed of Holstein and Jersey breeds. There was difference (P<0.05) for fat and total solids between seasons, with higher averages in winter. The values of SCC in summer were higher (P=0.02) than winter, and average values in both states were 456,000 cells/mL in summer and 266,000 cells/mL in winter, therefore, they are in conformity with the Normative Instruction for 2012-2014 period. There was no difference (P>0.05) of CBT for state nor season, with average value of 1,456,000 CFU/mL, i.e., not allowed by Brazilian legislation (<600,000 CFU/mL). Furthermore, it was observed that MPU are in phase of transition for organic system, and suffer difficulties at sanitary and food managements, as well as access to technical information related to the organic system. In the second study, it was used multivariate statistical method (factor analysis and cluster) by non-hierarchical agglomerative method to identify factors involved in milk production that may affect milk quality and productivity. It was identified three groups of MPU according to production rates and milk quality. Group 1 was composed by technified MPU with higher milk production (4,100 L/month) and number of animals (32.42), higher productivity per cow (10.57 L/cow/day), milk profile with minor percentage of fat (3.92%) and total solids (12.72%). The second group is composed by MPU with low production rates (6.59 L/cow/day) and milk quality (chemical and microbiological). Group 3, despite their low production rates (6.81 L/cow/day) and worse work conditions (hand milking, refrigerator and immersion tank as a milk cooler, floor soil ground), it presented higher milk fat percentage (4.48%), total solids (13.55%) and protein (3.65%) than others. In general, all groups presented chemical composition of milk in accordance to IN62. Groups 2 and 3 should have more care in preventing and detecting mastitis in order to reduce Somatic Cell Counting, and groups 1 and 2, should be more attentive to milking hygiene in order to reduce Total Bacterial Counting.
Description: Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Programa de Pós-graduação em Agroecossistemas, Florianópolis, 2013.
Date: 2013

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